An abnormal disorder categorized by stupor, stereotypy, mania, and either rigidity or extreme flexibility of the limbs. It is closely linked with schizophrenia.


  • Physical immobility. They may be completely unable to move or speak, or they may stare, hold their body in a rigid position and seem to be unaware of their surroundings (catatonic stupor). Catatonic's may also have a form of immobility known as waxy flexibility; for example, if their arm is moved into a certain position, it could stay in that position for hours.

  • Excessive mobility. Rather than being unable to move, they may move in an excited manner that appears to have no purpose. They could pace in a frantic way, turn in circles, flail their arms or make loud noises.

  • Extreme resistance. A catatonic may not respond to instructions, resist any attempt to be moved or not speak at all.

  • Peculiar movements. They may have inappropriate or unusual postures, grimace for long periods or use strange behavior. They might also repeat certain behaviors (stereotyped behaviors), such as repeating words, obsessively following a routine or always arranging objects exactly the same way.

  • Mimicking speech or movement. They may repeatedly say a word just spoken by someone else (echolalia) or repeatedly copy a gesture or movement made by someone else (echopraxia).

Other Symptoms:

· Having beliefs not based on reality (delusions)
· Seeing or hearing things that don't exist (hallucinations), especially voices
· Incoherent speech
· Neglect of personal hygiene
· Obvious lack of emotion
· Emotions inappropriate to the situation
· Angry outbursts
· Trouble functioning at school or work
· Social isolation
· Clumsy, uncoordinated movements


It can sometimes be difficult to diagnose catatonic schizophrenia because catatonic behavior has similar symptoms of other conditions, including: severe depression, mania, drug intoxication, autism and seizure disorders.

Main treatment options: 

· Medications

· Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

· Hospitalization

· Psychotherapy

· Vocal skills training

Effect On Daily Life:

Catatonic schizophrenia episodes can include behavior at an extreme opposite ends of the spectrum. The person may seem like they are in coma-like state. They will be unable to speak, move, respond, or they may talk and behave in a bizarre, hyperactive way. Catatonic episodes could last for a month or longer without the proper treatment.


Work Cited: